First of all, Muslims should learn about ALL the Prophets.
THE APOSTLE, and the believers with him, believe in what has been bestowed upon him from on high by his Sustainer: they all believe in God, and His angels, and His revelations, and His apostles, making no distinction between any of His apostles; and they say: We have heard, and we pay heed. Grant us Thy forgiveness, O our Sustainer, for with Thee is all journeys’ end! (2:285)
The different apostles all had different gifts and brought about different things. The Quran was obviously Mohammad’s miracle.
Yet today, most Muslims learn mainly about Mohammad PBUH, and not much about the other prophets. I can understand this is because Mohammad PBUH revealed the Quran, is the seal of the prophets, and the Quran corrects what has been corrupted in previous texts. But that doesn’t mean the other prophets aren’t important.
And in particular, I think there are good reasons to learn about Isa PBUH.
Jesus and his Mother Mary are a symbol of God’s grace
And [as We exalted Moses, so, too,] We made the son of Mary and his mother a symbol [of Our grace], and provided for both an abode in a lofty place of lasting restfulness and unsullied springs. (23:50)
AND [remember] her who guarded her chastity, whereupon We breathed into her of Our spirit and caused her, together with her son, to become a symbol [of Our grace] unto all people. (21:91)
Jesus is a sign of Judgement Day (The Hour)
And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path. (43:61)
Jesus is near to God
Lo! The angels said: “O Mary! Behold, God sends thee the glad tiding, through a word from Him, [of a son] who shall become known as the Christ Jesus, son of Mary, of great honour in this world and in the life to come, and [shall be] of those who are drawn near unto God (3:45)
God does not make any distinction between his messengers. They all made important contributions and are worth study. But some are more gifted than others. And gifted in different ways.
Some of these apostles have We endowed more highly than others: among them were such as were spoken to by God [Himself], and some He has raised yet higher.’ And We vouchsafed unto Jesus, the son of Mary, all evidence of the truth, and strengthened him with holy inspiration. (2:253)
Jesus is a Sign For All People
And (remember) her who guarded her chastity: We breathed into her of Our spirit, and We made her and her son a sign for all peoples. (21:91)
Jesus is Mentioned in the Quran Five Times More than the Prophet Mohammad
Jesus in the Quran (Islam 101)
Book By Turkish Muslim Who Sees Jesus in a New Light
There is Guidance and Light in the Gospels
And We caused Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of those [earlier prophets], confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah; and We vouchsafed unto him the Gospel, wherein there was guidance and light, confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah, and as a guidance and admonition unto the God-conscious. (5:46)
So the Gospels shouldn’t be thrown into the trash. While there are corruptions (which the Quran corrects), there is still some guidance and light in the Gospels. It is still worth reading, once you have a firm understanding of what the Quran corrects.
There’s also the fact that the Gospels mention the Prophet Mohammad!
The Arabic word “Muhammad” is an expression which means “The honorable one” or “The glorified one” or “The admirable”. Below, you will see how Jesus in today’s Gospel of John had called this human Prophet which he predicted his coming, “The honorable one”.
Jesus in the Greek Bible used the Greek word “Periklytos” which means the admirable or glorified one. He called that predicted human prophet “Periklytos”. This word corresponds to the Arabic word “Muhammad” which also means the “admired one” or “glorified one.” In other words, “Periklytos” is “Muhammad” in Greek.
JOHN 14:15-17: “If you love me you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father and He will give you another Comforter to be with you forever – the Spirit of Truth. The world cannot accept him because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him for he lives with you and will be in you.”
Just a note on the world not seeing the comforter and knowing him not. There are rules in Islam that one cannot depict the Prophet Mohammad, so the world does not see him. As to the world “knowing him not”? Perhaps that’s because the Quran doesn’t say much about the personal life of Mohammad aside from a few things, and perhaps what is said about the personal life of Mohammad in the Sunah, Hadith, and his biography is not accurate to who he really was (since it was written about 200 years after his existence). Mohammad even commanded others not to record his sayings, and Abu Bakr burnt 500 sayings of the Prophet because of this.
JOHN 14:25, 26: “All this I have spoken while still with you. But the Comforter, the Holy Spirit whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.”
JOHN 15:26: “When the Comforter comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.”
JOHN 16:7,8: “But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Comforter will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. When he comes he will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment….”
JOHN 16:13-15: “But when he, the Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it know to you. All that belongs to the Father is mine. That is why I said the Spirit will take from what is mine and make it known to you.”